Teleutotje Student
  • Member since Jun 5th 2016

Posts by Teleutotje

    A new Colobopsis species in Europe:


    Schifani, E.; Giannetti, D.; Csősz, S.; Castellucci, F.; Luchetti, A.; Castracani, C.; Spotti, F. A.; Mori, A.; Grasso, D. A. 2021. Is mimicry a diversification-driver in ants? Biogeography, ecology, ethology, genetics and morphology define a second West-Palaearctcic Colobopsis speceis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society XX:1-27.


    http://antcat.org/documents/81…olobopsis_new_species.pdf


    And a little sidestep, not about ants but about orchids:


    'Sleutel voor uitgebloeide orchideeën van Nederland en België' by Jean and Marijke Claessens.


    https://europeanorchids.com/wp…loeide-orchideeen-bev.pdf

    Casacci, L.P.; Barbero, F.; Ślipiński, P.; Witek, M. The Inquiline Ant Myrmica karavajevi Uses Both Chemical and Vibroacoustic Deception Mechanisms to Integrate into Its Host Colonies. Biology 2021, 10, 654.

    https://www.mdpi.com/2079-7737/10/7/654/htm or https://www.mdpi.com/2079-7737/10/7/654/pdf and https://www.mdpi.com/2079-7737/10/7/654/s1 (Thanks to Merkur!)


    And an article from last year, online since a few days ago:

    Williams, J. L.; Zhang, Y. M.; Lloyd, M. W.; LaPolla, J. S.; Schultz, T. R.; Lucky, A. 2020. Global domination by crazy ants: phylogenomics reveals biogeographical history and invasive species relationships in the genus Nylanderia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Systematic Entomology 45:730-744.

    http://antcat.org/documents/81…onships_in_nylanderia.pdf

    A third species of the rare ant genus Rotastruma (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from Cambodia, with illustrated generic diagnoses and key to species.

    Shingo Hosoishi, Seiki Yamane, Heng Sokh.


    https://dez.pensoft.net/article/63478/ or https://dez.pensoft.net/article/63478/d ... pdf/563072


    And an oldie:


    Borowiec, M. L. 2019. Convergent evolution of the army ant syndrome and congruence in big-data phylogenetics. Systematic Biology 68:642-656.


    http://antcat.org/documents/8126/borowi ... nomics.pdf


    And something completely different:


    Revision of the genus Attaphila (Blattodea: Blaberoidea), myrmecophiles living in the mushroom gardens of leaf-cutting ants.

    Horst Bohn, Volker Nehring, Jonathan Rodríguez G., Klaus-Dieter Klass.


    https://arthropod-systematics.arphahub. ... cle/67569/

    or

    https://arthropod-systematics.arphahub. ... pdf/563078 with six supplements.


    A remarkable finding:


    The first queen-worker association for Cretaceous Formicidae: the winged caste of Haidomyrmex cerberus.

    Yuanyuan Guo, Chungkun Shih, De Zhuo, Dong Ren, Yunyun Zhao, Taiping Gao.


    https://zookeys.pensoft.net/article/66920/ or https://zookeys.pensoft.net/article/669 ... pdf/563903

    Another week, a few taxonomic works...


    Salata, S.; Karaman, C.; Kiran, K.; Borowiec, L. 2021. Review of the Aphaenogaster splendida species-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Annales Zoologici (Warsaw) 71:297-343.


    http://antcat.org/documents/81…ta_az_71-2_297-343_op.pdf


    Strumigenys perplexa (Smith, 1876) (Formicidae, Myrmicinae) a new exotic ant to Europe with establishment in Guernsey, Channel Islands.

    Matthew T. Hamer, Andy D. Marquis, Benoit Guénard.


    https://jhr.pensoft.net/article/66829/ or https://jhr.pensoft.net/article/66829/download/pdf/560513 with one supplement.


    Prebus, M. M. 2021. Taxonomic revision of the Temnothorax salvini clade (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with a key to the clades of New World Temnothorax. PeerJ 9:e11514.


    http://antcat.org/documents/81…i_clade_new_world_key.pdf or https://peerj.com/articles/11514/ or https://peerj.com/articles/11514.pdf or https://peerj.com/articles/11514.pdf?res=high with 2 supplements.


    Prebus, M. M. 2021. Phylogenetic species delimitation in the ants of the Temnothorax salvini group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): an integrative approach. Systematic Entomology 46:307-326.


    http://antcat.org/documents/81…_species_delimitation.pdf and the page https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/syen.12463 with two supplements.

    Akbar, S. A.; Bharti, H.; Kanturski, M.; Wachkoo, A. A. 2021. First record of the myrmicine ant genus Syllophopsis Santschi, 1915 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from India with description of a new species. Zootaxa 4985:403-413.


    Look at etymology....


    http://antcat.org/documents/81…xa_syllophopsis_india.pdf


    Description of two new species of ants of the genus Myrmecina Curtis, 1829 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae) from the Eastern Himalayas.

    PUNNATH ASWAJ, KARUNAKARAN ANOOP, DHARMA RAJAN PRIYADARSANAN.


    http://antcat.org/documents/8120/aswaj_2021_myrmecina.pdf


    Wachkoo, A. A.; Bharti, H.; Akbar, S. A. 2021. Taxonomic review of the ant genus Lepisiota Santschi, 1926 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae) from India. Boon Zoological Bulletin 70:227-245.


    http://antcat.org/documents/81…us_lepisiota_of_india.pdf

    Just a small remark about the last book...


    Kutter, H., 1920, “”Gehe hin zur Ameise!” Anleitung zur selbständigen Ameisenforschung.” Naturwissenschaftliche Beobachtungsbücher 1-2: viii + 165 pp.


    Now, why is this book so important for me? It was written in 1920, so 100 years ago, and though it was really good for those myrmecologists at that time, it is old and probably for a big part out of date. So, why is it important for me?

    H. Kutter was one of those great myrmecologists that I personally contacted. It was about Kutter, H., 1978, “Hymenoptera: Formicidae.” Insecta Helvetica, Fauna 6a: 404 ills. This book is a supplement to Kutter, H., 1977, “Hymenoptera, Formicidae.” Insecta Helvetica, Fauna 6: 1-298. At that moment I had Fauna 6 and was looking for Fauna 6a. At last, without a copy found, I wrote Kutter. Sadly, his answer came and he told me there weren’t any exemplars left of the little book (Lucky for me, I found an exemplar by a second hand bookstore and still have it in my collection.). This was in the last years of his life.

    Kutter was one of the great myrmecologists that came from Switzerland. He was a student from A.-H. Forel and just like Forel, a Swiss neuroanatomist and psychiatrist, Kutter was a Swiss pharmacist with his own Ant Pharmacy („Ameisenapotheke“). His research about ants was a “great hobby” for him that made him one of the great myrmecologists. Like you can see in his Fauna 6, it was a very big and incredible job to do.

    But there was still one more thing great about him, he discovered that little ant Teleutomyrmex schneideri, the Final Ant, Kutter, H., 1950, “Über eine neue, extrem parasitische Ameise. 1. Mitteilung.” Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 23: 81-94. The description of this species took 14 pages, but the original series took 100 pages, in total 4 articles, his article, Stumper, R., 1951, “Teleutomyrmex schneideri Kutter (Hym. Formicid.). II. Mitteilung. Über die Lebensweise der neuen Schmarotzerameise.” Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 24: 129-152, Brun, R., 1952, “Das Zentralnervensystem von Teleutomyrmex Schneideri Kutt. (Hym. Formicid.). III. Mitteilung.” Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 25: 73-86 and Gösswald, K., 1953, “Histologische Untersuchungen an der arbeiterlosen Ameise Teleutomyrmex schneideri Kutter (Hym. Formicidae).” Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 26: 81-128. All this work was reviewed and more in Kutter, H., 1968 ("1969"), “Die sozialparasitischen Ameisen der Schweiz.” Neujahrsblatt. Naturforschende Gesellschaft in Zürich 171: 1-62.

    After 24 years in his life he published a little book about ants and how to keep them, Kutter, H., 1920, “"Gehe hin zur Ameise!" Anleitung zur selbständigen Ameisenforschung.” Naturwissenschaftliche Beobachtungsbücher 1-2: 164 pp. What he thought and what he wished about ants is included in it and it is the almost “starting point” about his ant-work. His publications run from 1913 to 1986 and are very important for Europe.

    Stumper, R., 1951, “Études myrmécologiques. X. La myrmécobiose.” (avec une figure). Bulletin de la Société des Naturalistes Luxembourgeois, vol. 55, p. 31-43.

    Stumper, R., 1950, “Les Associations Complexes des Fourmis. Commensalisme, Symbiose et Parasitisme.” (Avec 6 figures). Bulletin biologique de la France et de la Belgique, vol. 84, p. 376-399.

    102 references...

    kutteri, 11 ants named after H. Kutter, 6 still valid, 4 as synonyms and 1 unavailable.


    Camponotus kutteri

    kutteri. Camponotus (Myrmamblys) kutteri Forel, 1915a: 40 (s.w.q.m.) INDONESIA (Sumatra).

    Forel, A. 1915a. Fauna Simalurensis. Hymenoptera Aculeata, Fam. Formicidae. Tijdschr. Entomol. 58: 22-43 (page 40, soldier, worker, queen, male described)


    Temnothorax kutteri

    kutteri. Chalepoxenus kutteri Cagniant, 1973: 148, figs. 1-4 (w.q.m.) FRANCE. Combination in Temnothorax: Ward et al., 2014: 15.

    Buschinger, A. (2009) Social parasitism among ants: a review. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecological News 12: 219-235.

    Cagniant, H. 1973b. Description et représentation des trois castes de Chalepoxenus kutteri (nov. sp.) (Hyménoptères Formicidae - Myrmicidae). Insectes Soc. 20: 145-156 (page 148, figs. 1-4 worker, queen, male described)

    Ward, P.S., Brady, S.G., Fisher, B.L. & Schultz, T.R. 2015. The evolution of myrmicine ants: phylogeny and biogeography of a hyperdiverse ant clade (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Systematic Entomology, 40: 61-81.


    Crematogaster kutteri

    kutteri. Crematogaster kutteri Viehmeyer, 1924b: 314 (w.) AUSTRALIA. Combination in C. (Crematogaster): Bolton, 1995b: 166

    Viehmeyer, H. 1924c. Formiciden der australischen Faunenregion. (Fortsetzung). Entomol. Mitt. 13: 310-319 (page 314, worker described)

    Bolton, B. 1995b. A new general catalogue of the ants of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 504 pp.


    Leptothorax kutteri

    kutteri. Leptothorax (Mychothorax) kutteri Buschinger, 1966a: 327, figs. 1, 2, 3 (q.m.) GERMANY. Combination in Doronomyrmex: Buschinger, 1981: 215; in Leptothorax: Heinze, 1998: 195 (combination not stated); Bolton, 2003: 270. See also: Kutter, 1967b: 85; Kutter, 1977c: 130; Buschinger, 1972: 169.

    Blatrix R., Lebas C., Wegnez P., Galkowski C., Buschinger A., 2013. New data on the distribution of Leptothorax pacis and L. kutteri, two very rare parasitic ants, and confirmation of the presence of L. gredleri in France (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Revue de l’Association Roussillonnaise d’Entomologie, 22, 85-91.

    Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 272, Combination revived in Leptothorax)

    Buschinger, A. 1966a [1965]. Leptothorax (Mychothorax) kutteri n. sp., eine sozialparasitische Ameise (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Insectes Soc. 12: 327-334 PDF (page 327, figs. 1, 2, 3 queen, male described)

    Buschinger, A. 1972a. Kreuzung zweier sozialparasitischer Ameisenarten, Doronymyrmex pacis Kutter und Leptothorax kutteri Buschinger (Hym., Formicidae). Zool. Anz. 189: 169-179 (page 169, see also)

    Buschinger, A. 1981. Biological and systematic relationships of social parasitic Leptothoracini from Europe and North America. Pp. 211-222 in: Howse, P. E., Clement, J.-L. (eds.) Biosystematics of social insects. Systematics Association Special Volume No. 19. London: Academic Press, 346 pp. (page 215, Combination in Doronomyrmex)

    Buschinger, A. (2009) Social parasitism among ants: a review. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecological News 12: 219-235.

    Heinze, J. 1998 [1995]. The origin of workerless parasites in Leptothorax (s. str.) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Psyche (Camb.) 102: 195-214 (page 195, Returned to Leptothorax)

    Kutter, H. 1967c. Beschreibung neuer Sozialparasiten von Leptothorax acervorum F. (Formicidae). Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 40: 78-91 (page 85, see also)

    Kutter, H. 1977c. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Insecta Helv. Fauna 6: 1-298 (page 130, see also)

    Ødegaard, F., K.M. Olsen, A. Staverløkk, and J. O. Gjershaug. 2015. Towards a new era for the knowledge of ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in Norway? Nine species new to the country. Norwegian Journal of Entomology. 62:80-99.


    Myrmecina kutteri

    This taxon is not in use as it is currently considered to be a junior synonym of Myrmecina graminicola.

    kutteri. Myrmecina kutteri Forel, 1914b: 1 (w.) ITALY. [Also described as new by Forel, 1915d: 21 (w.q.m.).] Subspecies of graminicola: Emery, 1916b: 171. Junior synonym of graminicola: Brown, 1951: 106.

    Brown, W. L., Jr. 1951. New synonymy of a few genera and species of ants. Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 46: 101-106 (page 106, Junior synonym of graminicola)

    Emery, C. 1916a [1915]. Fauna entomologica italiana. I. Hymenoptera.-Formicidae. Bull. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 47: 79-275 (page 171, Variety of graminicola)

    Forel, A. 1914b. Deux nouveautés myrmécologiques. Yvorne, Switzerland: published by the author, 1 p. (page 1, worker described)

    Forel, A. 1915d. Fauna insectorum helvetiae. Hymenoptera. Formicidae. Die Ameisen der Schweiz. Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 12(B Beilage: 1-77 (page 21, [Also described as new by Forel, 1915d: 21 worker, queen, male described)


    Tetramorium kutteri

    kutteri. Teleutomyrmex kutteri Tinaut, 1990b: 202, figs. 1-3, photos. 1-2 (q.m.) SPAIN. Combination in Tetramorium: Ward et al., 2014: 16.

    Buschinger, A. (2009). Social parasitism among ants: a review. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecological News 12: 219-235.

    Kiran, K., Karaman, C., Lapeva-Gjonova, A. & Aksoy, V. 2017. Two new species of the “ultimate” parasitic ant genus Teleutomyrmex Kutter, 1950 from the Western Palaearctic. Myrmecological News 25: 145-155.

    Tinaut, A. 1990b. Teleutomyrmex kutteri, spec. nov. A new species from Sierra Nevada (Granada, Spain). Spixiana 13: 201-208 (page 202, figs. 1-3, photos. 1-2 queen, male described)

    Ward, P.S., Brady, S.G., Fisher, B.L. & Schultz, T.R. 2014. The evolution of myrmicine ants: phylogeny and biogeography of a hyperdiverse ant clade (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Systematic Entomology, 40: 61-81.


    Messor semirufus kutteri

    This taxon is not in use as it is currently considered to be a junior synonym of Messor semirufus.

    kutteri. Messor semirufus var. kutteri Santschi, 1934d: 275 (w.) ITALY. Junior synonym of semirufus: Baroni Urbani, 1974: 227.

    Baroni Urbani, C. 1974a. Studi sulla mirmecofauna d'Italia. XII. Le Isole Pontine. Fragm. Entomol. 9: 225-252.

    Santschi, F. 1934d. Fourmis d'une croisière. Bull. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 74: 273-282.


    Myrmica schencki kutteri

    This taxon is not in use as it is currently considered to be a junior synonym of Myrmica schencki.

    kutteri. Myrmica schencki var. kutteri Finzi, 1926: 111 (w.m.) SWITZERLAND. Junior synonym of schencki: Bernard, 1967: 118.

    Bernard, F. 1967a [1968]. Faune de l'Europe et du Bassin Méditerranéen. 3. Les fourmis (Hymenoptera Formicidae) d'Europe occidentale et septentrionale. Paris: Masson, 411 pp.

    Finzi, B. 1926. Le forme europee del genere Myrmica Latr. Primo contributo. Boll. Soc. Adriat. Sci. Nat. Trieste 29: 71-119


    Tetramorium semilaeve kutteri

    This taxon is not in use as it is currently considered to be a junior synonym of Tetramorium indocile.

    kutteri. Tetramorium semilaeve var. kutteri Santschi, 1927a: 57 (w.) SWITZERLAND.

    Subspecies of semilaeve: Novák & Sadil, 1941: 85 (in key); Bolton, 1995b: 410.

    Junior synonym of indocile: Wagner, et al. 2017: 116.

    Bolton, B. 1995b. A new general catalogue of the ants of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 504 pp.

    Novák, V.; Sadil, J. 1941. Klíc k urcování mravencu strední Evropy se zvlástním zretelem k mravencí zvírene Cech a Moravy. Entomol. Listy 4: 65-115

    Santschi, F. 1927b. A propos du Tetramorium caespitum L. Folia Myrmecol. Termit. 1: 52-58 (page 57, worker described)

    Wagner, H.C., Arthofer, W., Seifert, B., Muster, C., Steiner, F.M. & Schlick-Steiner, B.C. 2017. Light at the end of the tunnel: Integrative taxonomy delimits cryptic species in the Tetramorium caespitum complex. Myrmecological News 25: 95-129.


    Camponotus kutterianus

    kutterianus. Camponotus kutterianus Baroni Urbani, 1972: 132, figs. 1-3 (w.) CUBA.

    Baroni Urbani, C. 1972. Studi sui Camponotus (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Verhandlungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Basel 82:122-135.


    Strongylognathus huberi st. cecconii var. kutteri Santschi, 1927a: 58 (q.) ITALY (Sicily). Unavailable name; material referred to destefanii by Baroni Urbani, 1964b: 54.

    Santschi, F. 1927b. A propos du Tetramorium caespitum L. Folia Myrmecol. Termit. 1: 52-58.

    Baroni Urbani, C. 1964b. Studi sulla mirmecofauna d'Italia. II. Formiche di Sicilia. Atti Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. (6) 16: 25-66.

    pisarskii. Formica (Coptoformica) pisarskii Dlussky, 1964: 1034, figs. (w.q.) MONGOLIA. See also: Kupyanskaya, 1990: 204; Seifert, 2000a: 551.

    Dlussky, G. M. 1964. The ants of the subgenus Coptoformica of the genus Formica (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of the USSR. Zool. Zh. 4 43: 1026-1040 (page 1034, figs. worker, queen described)

    Kupyanskaya, A. N. 1990a. Ants of the Far Eastern USSR. Vladivostok: Akademiya Nauk SSSR, 258 pp. (page 204, see also)

    Seifert, B 2000a. A taxonomic revision of the ant subgenus Coptoformica Mueller, 1923 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zoosystema 22:517-568. (page 551, see also)


    pisarskii. Myrmica pisarskii Radchenko, 1994h: 208, figs. 1-12 (w.q.m.) RUSSIA, MONGOLIA. See also: Radchenko & Elmes, 2010: 216.

    Radchenko, A. G. 1994j. New Palaearctic species of the genus Myrmica Latr. (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Memorabilia Zool. 48: 207-217 (page 208, figs. 1-12 worker, queen, male described)

    Radchenko, A.G. & Elmes, G.W. 2010. Myrmica ants of the Old World. Fauna Mundi 3: 1-789.


    pisarskii. Strongylognathus pisarskii Poldi, 1994: 187, fig. 1 (w.) ITALY.

    Poldi, B. 1994. Strongylognathus pisarskii species nova (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Memorabilia Zool. 48: 187-191 (page 187, fig. 1 worker described)


    pisarskii. Temnothorax pisarskii Radchenko, 2004: 115, figs. 7-15 (w.q.m.) NORTH KOREA.

    Radchenko, A. 2004. A review of the ant genera Leptothorax Mayr and Temnothorax Mayr (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of the Eastern Palaearctic. Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. 50(2):109-137. (page 115, figs. 7-15 worker, queen, male described)

    Zhou, Shanyi; Huang, Jianhua; Yu, Daojian and Liu, Zhongjian. 2010. Eight New Species and Three Newly Recorded Species of The Ant Genus Temnothorax Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) From the Chinese Mainland, With a Key. Sociobiology. 56(1):7-26.


    Tetraponera pisarskii

    This taxon is not in use as it is currently considered to be a junior synonym of Tetraponera modesta.

    pisarskii. Tetraponera pisarskii Radchenko, 1997g: 480, figs. 1, 2 (w.) KOREA. Junior synonym of modesta: Ward, 2001: 616.

    Radchenko, A. G. 1997h. Tetraponera pisarskii sp. nov. - the first native member of subfamily Pseudomyrmicinae from Palaearctic Asia. Ann. Zool. (Warsaw) 47: 479-480.(page 480, figs. 1, 2 worker described)

    Ward, P. S. 2001. Taxonomy, phylogeny and biogeography of the ant genus Tetraponera (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Oriental and Australian regions. Invertebr. Taxon. 15: 589-665 (page 616, Junior synonym of modesta)


    pisarskii. Tetramorium pisarskii Radchenko & Scupola, 2015: 226, fig. 5 (w.) AFGHANISTAN.

    Radchenko, A.G. and Scupola, A. 2015. Taxonomic revision of the strativentre species group of the genus Tetramorium (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Vestnik zoologii. 49:219–244.


    6 species named after B. Pisarski, 5 still valid, 1 not valid.

    Gösswald was a little bit easier, only 3 species names from which only 1 survived!


    Formica goesswaldi Kutter, 1967.


    This taxon is not in use as it is currently considered to be a junior synonym of Formica foreli.


    Formica (Coptoformica) goesswaldi Kutter, 1967: 234, figs. 15-22 (w.q.m.) Germany. Junior synonym of foreli: Seifert, 2000: 544. See also: Kutter, 1977: 284.


    Kutter, H., 1967 [1966], “Einige Ergebnisse weiterer Coptoformica-Studien.” Insectes Soc. 13: 227-240.

    Kutter, H., 1977, “Hymenoptera, Formicidae.” Insecta Helv. Fauna 6: 1-298.

    Seifert, B., 2000, “A taxonomic revision of the ant subgenus Coptoformica Mueller, 1923 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).” Zoosystema 22: 517-568.


    Leptothorax goesswaldi Kutter, 1967.


    Leptothorax goesswaldi Kutter, 1967: 82, figs. 3-8, 10 (q.) Germany. Kutter, 1977: 129 (m.). Combination in Doronomyrmex: Buschinger, 1981: 215; in Leptothorax: Heinze, 1998: 195 (combination not stated); Bolton, 2003: 270.


    Bolton, B., 2003, “Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae.” Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp.

    Buschinger, A., 1974, “Zur Biologie der sozialparasitischen Ameise Leptothorax goesswaldi Kutter (Hym., Formicidae).” Ins. Soc. 21, 133-144.

    Buschinger, A., 1981, “Biological and systematic relationships of social parasitic Leptothoracini from Europe and North America.” P. 211-222 in: Howse, P. E., Clement, J.-L. (eds.), “Biosystematics of social insects.” Systematics Association Special Volume No. 19. London: Academic Press, 346 pp.

    Buschinger, A., 2009, “Social parasitism among ants: a review. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).” Myrmecological News 12: 219-235.

    Buschinger, A., Klump, B., 1988, “Novel strategy of host-colony exploitation in a permanently parasitic ant, Doronomyrmex goesswaldi.” Naturwissenschaften 75, 577-578.

    Douwes, Per, Abenius, J., Cederberg, B., Wahlstedt, U., 2012, “Steklar: Myror - getingar | Hymenoptera: Formicidae – Vespidae.”

    Heinze, J., 1998 [1995], “The origin of workerless parasites in Leptothorax (s. str.) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).” Psyche (Camb.) 102: 195-214.

    Kutter, H., 1967, “Beschreibung neuer Sozialparasiten von Leptothorax acervorum F. (Formicidae).” Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 40: 78-91.

    Kutter, H., 1977, “Hymenoptera, Formicidae.” Insecta Helv. Fauna 6: 1-298.

    Ødegaard, F., Olsen, K. M., Staverløkk, A., Gjershaug, J. O., 2015, “Towards a new era for the knowledge of ants (Hymenoptera,Formicidae) in Norway? Nine species new to the country.” Norwegian Journal of Entomology. 62: 80-99.

    Schultz, R., Buschinger, A., 2006, “First Asian record of the parasitic ant, Leptothorax goesswaldi Kutter, 1967 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).” Myrmecologische Nachrichten. 9: 33-34.


    Epimyrma goesswaldi Menozzi, in Gösswald, 1930.


    This taxon is not in use as it is currently considered to be a junior synonym of Temnothorax ravouxi.


    Epimyrma goesswaldi Menozzi, in Gösswald, 1930: 464, figs. 1-3 (w.q.m.) Germany. [Also described as new by Menozzi, 1931: 41.] Junior synonym of ravouxi: Buschinger, 1982: 352. See also: Stitz, 1939: 186; Kutter, 1973: 281.


    Buschinger, A., 1982, “Epimyrma goesswaldi Menozzi 1931 = Epimyrma ravouxi (André 1896). Morphologischer und biologischer Nachweis der Synonymie (Hym., Formicidae).” Zool. Anz. 208: 352-358.

    Gösswald, K., 1930, “Die Biologie einer neuen Epimyrma art aus dem mittleren Maingebiet.” Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche Zoologie 136: 464-484.

    Kutter, H., 1973, “Beitrag zur Lösung taxonomischer Probleme in der Gattung Epimyrma (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).” Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 46: 281-289.

    Menozzi, C., 1931, “Revisione del genere Epimyrma Em. (Hymen. Formicidae) e descrizione di una specie inedita di questo genere.” Mem. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 10: 36-53.

    Stitz, H., 1939, “Die Tierwelt Deutschlands und der angrenzenden Meersteile nach ihren Merkmalen und nach ihrer Lebensweise. 37. Theil. Hautflüger oder Hymenoptera. I: Ameisen oder Formicidae.” Jena, G. Fischer, 428 pp.

    Stumper got two names of ants behind him, Seifert only one:


    Teleutomyrmex seiferti Kiran & Karaman, in Kiran, et al. 2017.

    Tetramorium seiferti (Kiran & Karaman, in Kiran, et al. 2017).


    Teleutomyrmex seiferti Kiran & Karaman, in Kiran, et al. 2017: 148, figs. 3a, 4a, 5a, 6-8 (q.m.) Turkey.

    [Note: Kiran, et al. 2017: 146, retain the paraphyletic genus Teleutomyrmex.].


    Kiran, K., Karaman, C., Lapeva-Gjonova, A., Aksoy, V., 2017, "Two new species of the “ultimate” parasitic ant genus Teleutomyrmex Kutter, 1950 from the Western Palaearctic." Myrmecological News 25: 145-155.

    Discothyrea stumperi Baroni Urbani, 1977.


    Discothyrea stumperi Baroni Urbani, 1977, 97, figs. 1, 2 (w.) Bhutan.


    Baroni Urbani, C., 1977, “Discothyrea Stumperi n. sp. du Bhoutan, premier représentant du genre dans le Subcontinent Indien (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).” Arch. Inst. Grand-Ducal Luxemb. (n.s.) 37: 97-101.

    De Andrade, M. L., 1998, “First fossil records of the ant genus Discothyrea in Dominican and Mexican amber (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).” Fragm. Entomol. 30: 201-214,


    Temnothorax stumperi (Kutter, 1950).


    Epimyrma stumperi Kutter, 1950: 340, figs. 4-7 (m.) Switzerland. Combination in Myrmoxenus: Schulz & Sanetra, 2002: 162. Kutter, 1951: 153 (w.q.); in Temnothorax: Ward et al., 2014: 15. See also: Stumper & Kutter, 1951: 983; Kutter, 1973: 281.


    Buschinger, A., Ehrhardt, W., Fischer, K., 1981, “Doronomyrmex pacis, Epimyrma stumperi und E. goesswaldi (Hym., Formicidae) neu für Frankreich.” Insectes Sociaux 28: 67-70.

    Kutter, H., 1950, “Über zwei neue Ameisen.” Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 23: 337-346.

    Kutter, H., 1951, “Epimyrma Stumperi Kutter (Hym. Formicid.). 2. Mitteilung.” Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 24: 153-174.

    Kutter, H., 1973, “Beitrag zur Lösung taxonomischer Probleme in der Gattung Epimyrma (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).” Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 46: 281-289.

    Schulz, A., Sanetra, M., 2002, “Notes on the socially parasitic ants of Turkey and the synonymy of Epimyrma (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).” Entomofauna 23(14): 157-172.

    Stumper, R., Kutter, H., 1951, “Sur l'éthologie du nouveau myrmécobionte Epimyrma Stumperi (nov. spec. Kutter).” C. R. Séances Acad. Sci. 233: 983-985.

    Who are the people that myrmecologists “use” as name-givers to new ant-species? A few examples from recent tormented ant history…


    Teleutomyrmex schneideri Kutter, 1950.


    Let’s start with the ant Teleutomyrmex schneideri. H. Kutter named that ant after the Swiss Prof. Dr. Otto Schneider-Orelli (1880-1965), his teacher and friend. Prof. Dr. Otto Schneider-Orelli became Doctor in Botany (plants.) in 1905, assistant in botany (grapes for wine) from 1905 till 1913 in Wädenswil and changed to entomology from 1913 till 1917 there. Kept working on insects at the ETH from 1917 on and became professor at the ETH in 1921. In 1928 he became the first director of the Institute of Entomology of the ETH. Kept the functions of professor and director till his retirement in 1950. His most important job was curator of the entomological collection of the ETH in Zurich (1917-1950). He worked as entomologist on Hemiptera as pests in agriculture and forests.

    His father and his son also were botanists (Later, his son became, like his father, an entomologist.).


    Tetramorium schneideri Emery, 1898.


    C. Emery named this ant after Prof. Oskar Schneider, another botanist, from Germany, who had collected the holotype. Couldn’t find more about this Prof. Oskar Schneider.

    When Teleutomyrmex schneideri was placed in Tetramorium it became a junior synonym of Emery’s ant and got another name…


    Teleutomyrmex kutteri Tinaut, 1990.


    Yes, A. Tinaut dedicated this ant to Dr. H. Kutter…


    Tetramorium semilaeve var.kutteri Santschi, 1927.


    In 1927, F. Santschi described the ant and named it after the collector of the animal, H. Kutter. In 2017, the name was synonymised with Tetramorium indocile Santschi, 1927, described in the same paper but four pages earlier…

    When Teleutomyrmex kutteri was placed in Tetramorium it became a junior synonym of Santschi’s ant. Ward et al. didn’t notice that fact and forgot to give it another name…


    So, both ants were named kutteri to honour the same man.

    Only 4 ant species are named after Prof. Dr. U. Maschwitz.


    Camponotus (Karavaievia) maschwitzi Dumpert, 2006.


    Camponotus (Karavaievia) maschwitzi Dumpert, in Dumpert, Maschwitz & Weissflog, 2006: 73, figs. 10-13 (w.q.) Borneo.


    Dumpert, K., Maschwitz, U., Weissflog, A., 2006, “Description of five new weaver ant species of Camponotus subgenus Karavaievia EMERY, 1925 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Malaysia and Thailand, with contribution to their biology, especially to colony foundation.” Myrmecologische Nachrichten, vol. 8, 69-82.


    Cladomyrma maschwitzi Agosti, 1991.


    Cladomyrma maschwitzi Agosti, 1991: 306, figs. 5, 8-12, 15, 19, 21, 24 (s.w.q.m.) West Malaysia. See also: Agosti, Moog & Maschwitz, 1999: 11.


    Agosti, D. 1991. Revision of the oriental ant genus Cladomyrma, with an outline of the higher classification of the Formicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Syst. Entomol. 16: 293-310.

    Agosti, D.; Moog, J.; Maschwitz, U. 1999. Revision of the Oriental plant-ant genus Cladomyrma. Am. Mus. Novit. 3283: 1-24.


    Dolichoderus maschwitzi Dill, 2002.


    Dolichoderus maschwitzi Dill, 2002: 52, figs. III-15, III-23, III-29, III-64 (w.q.m.) Borneo.


    Dill, M., 2002,” Taxonomy of the migrating herdsman species of the genus Dolichoderus Lund, 1831, with remarks on the systematics of other Southeast-Asian Dolichoderus.” Pp. 17-113 in: Dill, M., Williams, D. J., Maschwitz, U., “Herdsmen ants and their mealybug partners.” Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft Frankfurt am Main, vol. 557, 1-373.


    Euprenolepis maschwitzi LaPolla, 2009.


    Euprenolepis maschwitzi LaPolla, 2009: 8, figs. 4A-D (w.) Borneo.


    LaPolla, J. S., 2009, “Taxonomic revision of the Southeast Asian ant genus Euprenolepis.” Zootaxa, vol. 2046, 1-25.


    All the maschwitzi ant species got Maschwitz his name because they wanted to honour him for the behavioural research he did on the ant genera including these species.

    "Unfortunately Leptothorax buschingeri could never be confirmed as a real species. The type material consists of a series of teratological males." Prof. A. Buschinger.


    But still, the name is accepted and kept in the list of valid species...


    Note on AntWiki: "This species is most probably a junior synonym of Leptothorax acervorum. Only a couple of males from one colony have been described. Having compared the type material with numerous ordinary males of L. acervorum, and with a number of misshaped specimens, I am convinced that L. buschingeri represents nothing but teratological specimens of the presumed host species. A. Buschinger 03:33, 30 November 2012 (EST)."

    Two species dedicated to Prof. Alfred Buschinger.


    Leptothorax buschingeri Kutter, 1967.


    Leptothorax buschingeri Kutter, 1967: 88, figs. 14, 15 (m.). Switzerland. See also: Kutter, 1977: 128.


    Kutter, H., 1967, “Beschreibung neuer Sozialparasiten von Leptothorax acervorum F. (Formicidae).” Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, vol. 40: 78-91.

    Kutter, H., 1977, “Hymenoptera, Formicidae.” Insecta Helvetica. Fauna, vol. 6, 1-298.


    Teleutomyrmex buschingeri Lapeva-Gjonova, 2017.

    Tetramorium buschingeri (Lapeva-Gjonova, 2017).


    Teleutomyrmex buschingeri Lapeva-Gjonova, in Kiran, et al. 2017: 151, figs. 3b, 4b, 5b (q.). Bulgaria.

    [Note: Kiran, et al. 2017: 146, retain the “paraphyletic” genus Teleutomyrmex.]


    Kiran, K., Karaman, C., Lapeva-Gjonova, A., Aksoy, V., 2017, “Two new species of the “ultimate” parasitic ant genus Teleutomyrmex Kutter, 1950 from the Western Palaearctic.” Myrmecological News, vol. 25, 145-155.


    Etymology: The species is dedicated to Prof. Alfred Buschinger who has made great contributions to the study of socially parasitic ants.”

    Hallo. I want to talk about an ant. The ant is Lasius fuliginosus (Latreille, 1798), original described as Formica fuliginosa Latreille, 1798, moved to Lasius by Mayr, 1861, to Donisthorpea by Donisthorpe, 1915, to Formicina by Emery, 1916, to Acanthomyops by Forel, 1916, and to Lasius (Dendrolasius) by Ruzsky, 1912. So this ant is already known for 222 years. And this is the most important information you can find online (got this on 27/02/2020 between 10:30 and 11:30!):


    On AntWeb:

    “Distribution:
    Geographic regions (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists):
    Asia: Japan.
    Europe: Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland.
    Biogeographic regions (According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists):
    Palearctic.
    Native to (according to species list records):
    Palearctic bioregion.”
    And “Distribution. Throughout Denmark and Southern Fennoscandia to latitude 62°; South Ireland, England and Wales. - Range: Portugal to Japan and North India, South Italy to Finland.
    Biology. This distinctive species is easily recognised by its shining black colour and broad head. Carton nests are constructed at the base of old trees, hedgerows and sometimes in sand dunes and in old walls. Colonies are populous, often polycalic with more than one focal nest and several queens. Workers forage above ground in narrow files throughout the day and night during warm weather, ascending trees and shrubs to tend aphids. The mandibles are relatively weak but small insects may be taken as food. Other competing ant species are repelled by aromatic anal secretions. Fertilised queens may be retained in the old nest or found fresh colonies through adoption by the members of the Lasius umbratusHNS species group; mixed colonies with L. umbratusHNS or L. mixtusHNS have often been observed. Flight periods are irregular and have been recorded in all months from May to October. A number of local beetles occur with this species including members of the genus Zyras which exhibit protective mimicry. Walden (1964), records an enormous nest measuring 63 x 55 x 55 cm found in a cellar near Goteborg and there are similar reports from outbuildings and cellars in England (Donisthorpe, 1927).
    Specimen Habitat Summary.
    Found most commonly in these habitats: 396 times found in Unknown, 128 times found in heathlands, 128 times found in Forest, 71 times found in Anthropogenic, 45 times found in dry grassland, 35 times found in shrubs, 33 times found in Wet grassland, 31 times found in Rocks (rocky-calcareous grasslands), 21 times found in dunes & inland dunes, 2 times found in mixed woodland, ...
    Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 5 times on trunk, 5 times on the ground, 2 times Nest under stone, 1 times nest in soil, 2 times foraging on ground, 1 times strays, 1 times Sobre Sambucus nigra, 1 times Sobre Alnus glutinosa, 1 times on path between trees, 1 times on car, 1 times Nido en base arbol cerca río, ...
    Collected most commonly using these methods: 380 times Pitfall trap, 251 times Manual catch, 24 times search, 10 times Malaise trap, 9 times Hand, 8 times sifting of soil samples, 5 times Window trap, 5 times beating, 5 times Color trap, 3 times Yellow color trap, 3 times Pyramid trap, ...
    Elevations: collected from 35 - 1750 meters, 659 meters average.”

    On AntWiki:

    “This species exhibits temporary social parasitism. Queens found new colonies by infiltrating an established nest of a different ant species, killing the queen and having the host workers care for her initial brood. Hosts include Lasius alienus, Lasius brunneus, Lasius mixtus, Lasius niger, Lasius rabaudi and Lasius umbratus. Lasius fuliginosus form large carton nests commonly in cavities at the base of old trees (oak, birch, willow, pine).”
    And “Distribution.
    Portugal to Japan and North India, South Italy to Finland (Collingwood 1979).
    Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists.
    Palaearctic Region: Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Channel Islands, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (type locality), Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iberian Peninsula, Isle of Man, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Republic of Macedonia, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.”
    And more “Biology.
    This distinctive species is easily recognised by its shining black colour and broad head. Carton nests are constructed at the base of old trees, hedgerows and sometimes in sand dunes and in old walls. Colonies are populous, often polycalic with more than one focal nest and several queens. Workers forage above ground in narrow files throughout the day and night during warm weather, ascending trees and shrubs to tend aphids. The mandibles are relatively weak but small insects may be taken as food. Other competing ant species are repelled by aromatic anal secretions. Fertilised queens may be retained in the old nest or found fresh colonies through adoption by the members of the umbratus species group; mixed colonies with Lasius umbratus or Lasius mixtus have often been observed. Flight periods are irregular and have been recorded in all months from May to October. A number of local beetles occur with this species including members of the genus Zyras which exhibit protective mimicry. Waldén (1964), records an enormous nest measuring 63 x 55 x 55 cm found in a cellar near Göteborg and there are similar reports from outbuildings and cellars in England (Donisthorpe, 1927).
    Wilson (1955) - Many European observers have reported independently on various aspects of the ecology of this ant, and together they present a reassuringly consistent picture. Lasius fuliginosus nests primarily in standing tree trunks and rotting stumps, and only occasionally in and around the roots of trees, under stones, and in open soil. In a random field survey in Germany, Gosswald (1932) recorded 63 nests in wood, 2 under stones, and 5 in open soil. He found the species nesting most commonly in old poplars and willows in dry meadows. It is often locally abundant; O'Rourke (1950) notes that in Ireland it may become the dominant ant in oak woods.
    L. fuliginosus almost invariably constructs a carton nest. The composition of the carton has been analyzed by Stumper (1950), who finds that it consists primarily of macerated wood hardened with secretions from the mandibular glands. There may be some soil particles mixed in, especially in subterranean nests, but these constitute a very minor fraction. Stumper was unable to find supporting evidence for the old contention that several species of symbiotic fungi are normally grown in the carton walls.
    L. fuliginosus forages during both the day and night, forming long, conspicuous columns which usually lead to trees infested with aphids or eoceids , the excreta of these latter insects forms a principal food source for the ant. In addition, many authors have observed workers carrying dead or crippled insects back to the nests.
    Eidmann (1943) has studied overwintering in this species. A colony which he kept under observation through the autumn moved from a position in a tree bole to subterranean quarters directly beneath the tree. The winter carton nest had chambers twice the size of those in the summer nest, and its walls were conspicuously studded with grains of sand. Medium-sized and full grown larvae were found hibernating with the adults.
    Winged reproductives have been taken in the nests from May to September. The nuptial flights apparently take place earlier than in other members of the genus; literature records span the period May 4 to July 27. The flights occur mostly in the afternoon, although some authors, such as Escherich and Ludwig (1906), have suggested that they occur at night also. According to Donisthorpe (1927), the mating behavior shows early signs of parasitic degeneration. There is a marked decrease in the size difference between the two sexes, and the nuptial flight appears to have been partly suppressed. In one case Donisthorpe observed nestmates copulating on vegetation in the immediate vicinity of the parent nest.
    Donisthorpe (1922) has also reviewed the extensive literature on colony founding in this species. It has been proven without any doubt to be a temporary social parasite on Lasius umbratus (= Lasius mixtus), which species was defined in the old sense and may well include Lasius rabaudi also. Numerous mixed colonies have been found in nature, and successful adoptions of dealate queens by host colonies have been repeatedly obtained under artificial conditions. This habit places fuliginosus in the extraordinary position of being a social hyperparasite, since Lasius umbratus is parasitic itself on members of the subgenus Lasius. In more recent years, Stareke (1944) has obtained the experimental adoption of fuliginosus queens by colonies of rabaudi (= Lasius meridionalis), Lasius niger, and Lasius alienus.
    Foraging/Diet.
    See the general biology discussion above for an overview of diet and foraging. Novgorodova (2015b) investigated ant-aphid interactions of a dozen honeydew collecting ants in south-central Russia. All of the ants studied had workers that showed high fidelity to attending particular aphid colonies, i.e, individual foragers that collect honeydew tend to return to the same location, and group of aphids, every time they leave the nest. Lasius fuliginosus showed no specialization beyond this foraging site fidelity. Foragers tended Chaitophorus populeti (Panzer), Cinara laricis (Hartig) and Stomaphis quercus (Linnaeus).
    Known Hosts.
    Lasius fuliginosus is known to use the following species as temporary hosts:
    Lasius alienus
    Lasius brunneus
    Lasius mixtus
    Lasius niger
    Lasius rabaudi
    Lasius umbratus”

    And on AmeisenWiki:

    “Lasius fuliginosus, im Deutschen Glänzendschwarze Holzameise oder Kartonameise genannt, ist ein örtlich gehäuft vorkommender Vertreter der Schuppenameisen in Mitteleuropa. Die Art gehört zur Untergattung Dendrolasius, was auf ihre Affinität zu Holz hinweist (griech. dendron: Baum).”
    And “Verbreitung und Lebensraum.
    Lasius fuliginosus ist in großen Teilen Europas und Asiens meist in Holz (z. B. morschen Baumstämmen) zu finden, reine Bodennester hingegen sind seltener. Diesem Vorzug entsprechend ist die Art meistens in Laub- und Nadelwäldern und Parks, aber auch in der Nähe größerer einzelner Bäume anzutreffen.
    Koloniegründung.
    Eine im Juni oder Juli schwärmende Lasius fuliginosus-Jungkönigin ist bei der sozialparasitischen Gründung auf ein bereits vorhandenes Nest der Gelben Schattenameise (Lasius umbratus) angewiesen. Da Lasius umbratus bereits eine sozialparasitäre Gründung aufweist, nennt man diese Art des Parasitismus Hyperparasitismus. Weitere mögliche Wirtsarten sind Lasius sabularum, jensi x umbratus und bicornis.
    Das Wirtsvolk muss bereits weisellos sein, darf also keine Königin mehr enthalten. Soweit bekannt finden sich in der Regel mehrere Jungköniginnen zusammen, um in das Nest der Wirtsameise einzudringen, sodass L. fuliginosus-Völker oft polygyn oder oligogyn sind. Nach einer erfolgreichen Übernahme beginnen die Gynen mit der Eiablage; die Nachkommen werden von den Lasius umbratus-Arbeiterinnen versorgt. Im Laufe der Zeit sterben die Wirts-Arbeiterinnen ab und das Nest wird nur noch von L. fuliginosus bewohnt.
    Kolonie und Nestanlage.
    Mit bis zu 2 Millionen Arbeiterinnen kann ein Nest sehr volkreich werden, zudem entwickeln sich mehrere Zweignester in denen jeweils auch eine oder mehrere Königinnen leben (Polygynie). Es werden jedoch anscheinend später keine Jungköniginnen aufgenommen, so dass ein Volk nach dem Tod der letzten Königin abstirbt.
    Nester werden bevorzugt in morschem Holz angelegt, wobei dieses großzügig bearbeitet wird. Die Kartonnester der glänzendschwarzen Holzameise befinden sich nicht nur in und unter hohlen Baumstämmen, sondern auch in von Menschen geschaffenen Zaunpfählen, Schuppen oder Dachbalken. So kann L. fuliginosus zur Schadameise werden, obwohl Schäden bei modernen Gebäuden kaum auftreten.
    Die Kartonnester bestehen aus verschiedenen Feststoffen wie z. B. zerkautem Holz und zu fast 50% aus Zucker. Das kartonartige Gebilde ist die Grundlage für einen mit L. fuliginosus vergesellschafteten Pilz. Dieser Pilz, Cladosporium myrmecophilum (ein deutscher Name existiert nicht), überwuchert und durchdringt mit feinen Fäden die dünnen Wände und verstärkt diese so um ein Vielfaches. Die Arbeiterkaste hat zusätzlich die Aufgabe, Teile des Pilzes an neu gebauten Nestteilen anzusiedeln damit sich dieser auch dort verbreiten kann. Auch wird der Pilz von den Ameisen daran gehindert unkontrolliert das komplette Nest zu überwuchern. Der alleinige Zweck dieser Pilzzucht ist die Stabilisation der Nestwände durch die netzartige Geflechtstruktur. L. fuliginosus ernährt sich nicht von diesem Pilz wie früher irrtümlich angenommen.
    Aufgaben der Arbeiterinnen.
    Alte Arbeiterinnen sammeln außerhalb des Nestes Feststoffe und transportieren diese ins Nest, ebenso wird Honigtau von Rindenläusen gesammelt. Hierbei ist besonders die Art Stomaphis quercus zu nennen, die oft in den Vertiefungen der stark zerklüfteten Eichenborke von vielen Lasius fuliginosus-Arbeiterinnen umsorgt wird. Der ins Nest eingetragene Honigtau wird weiteren Arbeiterinnen übergeben, welche die Hauptaufgabe der Brutpflege übernehmen.
    Besonderheiten.
    In der Nähe der Nester ist ein für den menschlichen Geruchssinn süßlicher Duft wahrnehmbar. In ihren Mandibeldrüsen produzieren die Ameisen Dendrolasin und Undekan. Diese Sekrete werden bei Störung oder Bedrohung des Nestes abgegeben. Was für den Menschen nur ein süßlicher Duft ist, ist für das Ameisenvolk eine effiziente Methode das komplette Nest in Alarmbereitschaft zu versetzen. Zudem hat dieser Geruch eine sehr starke abschreckende Wirkung auf andere Formica- und Lasius-Arten und wirkt bei diesen sogar toxisch.
    Wehrsekret Dendrolasin: Waldameisen flüchten vor Lasius fuliginosus.
    Das Wehrsekret der Glänzendschwarzen Holzameise ist äußerst wirksam gegenüber anderen Ameisen. Nach Eingabe von 1-2 Handvoll Lasius fuliginosus in die Kuppel eines Nestes von Formica polyctena verlassen ein Teil der Arbeiterinnen und Königinnen sofort das Nest, Arbeiterinnen tragen auch Larven und Puppen auf die Oberfläche. Der Exodus der Waldameisen hat sogar eine deutliche Temperatursenkung im Wärmezentrum der Nester zur Folge. Dies wurde im wissenschaftlichen Experiment festgestellt.”

    So, here is all the important information about this special ant…

    The other extreme, workerless inquilines…


    Tetramorium Mayr, 1855.


    Tetramorium [Myrmicinae: Tetramoriini].

    - Tetramorium Mayr, 1855: 423. Type-species: Formica caespitum, by subsequent designation of Girard, 1879: 1016.


    Tetramorium microgyna Santschi, 1918b.


    microgyna. Tetramorium microgyna Santschi, 1918b: 132 (q., not w.) South Afrika.

    - See also: Arnold, 1926: 253; Santschi, 1928f: 207; Bolton, 1980: 329.


    Tetramorium parasiticum Bolton, 1980.


    parasiticum. Tetramorium parasiticum Bolton, 1980: 281, figs. 65, 66 (q.) South Africa.


    Pheidole Westwood, 1839.


    Pheidole [Myrmicinae: Pheidolini].

    - Pheidole Westwood, 1839: 219. Type-species: Atta providens, by monotypy.


    Anergatides [junior synonym of Pheidole].

    - Anergatides Wasmann, 1915b: 281. Type-species: Anergatides kohli (junior secondary homonym in Pheidole, replaced by Pheidole neokohli), by monotypy.

    - Anergatides junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1366; Wilson, 1984: 328.


    Bruchomyrma [junior synonym of Pheidole].

    - Bruchomyrma Santschi, 1922d: 248. Type-species: Bruchomyrma acutidens, by monotypy.

    - Bruchomyrma junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1366; Wilson, 1984: 327.

    - [Bruchomyrma listed as genus: Dlussky & Fedoseeva, 1988: 80 (anachronism)].

    - Bruchomyrma junior synonym of Pheidole: Bolton, 1994: 106; Wilson, 2003: 6.


    Gallardomyrma [junior synonym of Pheidole].

    - Gallardomyrma Bruch, 1932: 271. Type-species: Gallardomyrma argentina, by original designation.

    - Gallardomyrma junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1366; Wilson, 1984: 327.

    - [Gallardomyrma listed as genus: Dlussky & Fedoseeva, 1988: 80 (anachronism)].

    - Gallardomyrma junior synonym of Pheidole: Bolton, 1994: 106; Wilson, 2003: 6.


    Pheidole neokohli Wilson, 1984 (= Pheidole kohli (Wasmann, 1915))

    (= Anergatides kohli Wasmann, 1915)

    (not Pheidole kohli Mayr, 1901).


    kohli. Anergatides kohli Wasmann, 1915b: 283, pls. 7, 8 (q.m.) Democratic Republic Of Congo.

    [Junior secondary homonym of kohli Mayr, 1901b; 11 (footnote).] Replacement name: Pheidole neokohli Wilson, 1984: 328. Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1955c: 130 (l.).


    neokohli. Pheidole neokohli Wilson, 1984: 328. Replacement name for Anergatides kohli Wasmann, 1915b: 283. [Junior secondary homonym of Pheidole kohli Mayr, 1901b: 11 (footnote).]


    Pheidole acutidens (Santschi, 1922) (= Bruchomyrma acutidens Santschi, 1922).


    acutidens. Bruchomyrma acutidens Santschi, 1922d: 249, figs. A-D (q.) Argentina. Bruch, 1931: 31 (m.). Combination in Pheidole: Wilson, 1984: 327. See also: Wheeler, W.M. 1937c: 52; Wilson, 2003: 260.


    Pheidole argentina (Bruch, 1932) (= Gallardomyrma argentina Bruch, 1932).


    argentina. Gallardomyrma argentina Bruch, 1932: 273, figs. 1-8 (q.) Argentina. Combination in Pheidole: Wilson, 1984: 327. See also: Wilson, 2003: 267.


    Pheidole parasitica Wilson, 1984.


    parasitica. Pheidole parasitica Wilson, 1984: 321, fig. 3 (q.) India.


    Excluded from the extreme, workerless inquilines


    Eriopheidole [junior synonym of Pheidole].

    - Eriopheidole Kusnezov, 1952a: 10. Type-species: Eriopheidole symbiotica (junior secondary homonym in Pheidole, replaced by Pheidole kusnezovi), by monotypy.

    - Eriopheidole junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1366; Bolton, 1994: 106.


    Pheidole kusnezovi Wilson, 2003 (= Pheidole symbiotica (Kusnezov, 1952))

    (= Eriopheidole symbiotica Kusnezov, 1952)

    (not Pheidole symbiotica Wasmann, 1909).


    symbiotica. Eriopheidole symbiotica Kusnezov, 1952a: 16, figs. 1-9 (q.m.) Argentina.

    [Junior secondary homonym of Pheidole symbiotica Wasmann, 1909: 693 (footnoye).] Combination in Pheidole: Wilson, 1984: 328. Replacement name: Pheidole kusnezovi Wilson, 2003: 311.


    kusnezovi. Pheidole kusnezovi Wilson, 2003: 311. Replacement name for Eriopheidole symbiotica Kusnezov, 1952a: 16. [Junior secondary homonym of Pheidole symbiotica Wasmann, 1909: 693 (footnote).]

    A brand new systematic study of Corbiculate Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae):


    The intro: https://entomologytoday.org/20…-of-bees-social-behavior/


    The study:


    Corbiculate Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae): Exploring the Limits of Morphological Data to Solve a Hard Phylogenetic Problem.

    Diego Sasso Porto, Eduardo A B Almeida.

    Insect Systematics and Diversity, Volume 5, Issue 3, May 2021, 2.


    https://academic.oup.com/isd/article/5/3/2/6278479 or https://academic.oup.com/isd/a…/3/2/37961624/ixab008.pdf with 7 supplements.


    They studied 289 characters...